Desired-but-deferred punishment amounts to hatred, itself a continuation of anger by other means; for Byron and for Satan , those means have their center in memory. With us or against us, indignant or enraged, loyalist or terrorist: the end of moderation signaled by the rhetoric of the Revolution debates may be the most troubling of the legacies of the 1790s, and the one the Romantics struggled with most vehemently. Chapter 5 appeared in an altered form in Keats—Shelley Journal 49 2000 and is reprinted by permission of the editor. It should be kept hidden in the deepest depths of the heart and it should not drive but be driven; and more, all symptoms of it let us change into just the opposite. In other words, in the Stoic conception, anger produces only chaos.
It is a poem that begins in outrage, with a violent spectacle of indignation that resembles satire, directed against an enemy or false hero in order to strip away his disguise. Hanley, Stoicism in Major English Poets of the Nineteenth Century New York: Haskell House, 1964. Thus came the vicious and classically Freudian cycle so familiar to readers of Coleridge: aggression, born from insecurity, is introjected as guilt. As Godwin saw it, the cause of British reform, like the French Revolution itself, would founder amidst the factional anger of the citizens — republican and loyalist — who felt their own passionate indignation as a virtue and looked upon moderation as the enemy. The romance tradition, particularly as read through Spenser and Milton, surely provided Shelley with another approach to evil disguised. Yet ultimately Collins shrinks from an appropriation of anger, from a true engagement with anger as a muse. Coleridge, Collected Letters, i : 145.
It may not be quite fair to read Byron's letters into his poetry. Champion, 1925 , 361—79; and Roberts, Longinus, On the Sublime, 247—51. In addition, the sharply polarized positions that emerged from the Revolution debates were an ongoing function of the new media of anger — the popular press — which, in times of crisis, continues to make a monster of dissent. They who are not actively, and with decision and energy, against Jacobinism, are its partisans. De Luca, Words of Eternity: Blake and the Poetics of the Sublime Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991 , 55. What the citizens need is an outlet such as dramatic poetry conveniently supplied. All my malice evaporates in the effusions of my pen; but I dare say that those that excite it would prefer any other mode of vengeance.
Nothing attests more eloquently to the conclusion of such a period than the passage of the infamous Two Acts in December of 1795, which essentially criminalized opposition to the political status quo. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001. James Soderholm Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Plato explicitly compares the spirited element of the soul thumos to the guardians of a city, who use anger to avenge injuries from without while limiting or moderating incursions of anger from within. My anger is likely to do me more harm than your wrong. In this same hortatory vein, one T.
This book will be long valued for its nuances exploration of the ever-timely question of how words on the page aim to inflict violence and cause harm. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998. In his anger, Falkland falls between these two stools, attacking the unprepared Tyrrel from behind like any hired killer. It was a totalitarian poetics. This has to be so, if the anger is to be cleanly and completely discharged; the occasion of the anger is consumed clean away, never to be thought of again. As he writes in his Theory of Moral Sentiments 1759 : The hoarse, boisterous, and discordant voice of anger.
How to distinguish their rage from that of the Augustans on the one hand, and that of the propagandists on the other, became a crucial question. Till it bore an apple bright. Each time Falkland shows signs of anger, Caleb becomes more watchful, more curious, more readerly, with regard to his master. I will storm the gods, and shake the universe. As Stauffer asserts, Shelley struggles with ambivalence towards anger while Byron confronts the hypocrisy of anger in his work and himself.
He focuses primarily on the effects of anger on the literature of this period to enhance the attention already given to the human emotions in studies of grief, melancholy, and fear. Fuess, Lord Byron as a Satirist in Verse; Frederick L. The energies of the mind are wasted in these intemperate effusions. The Romantic age was one of anger and its consequences: revolution and reaction, terror and war. . Caleb Williams thus often feels more like a drama of criminality and detection — one thinks of Oedipus Rex, for example a play that Seneca reprised as Oedipus — than a gothic tale. I know thy hurried Step, thy haggard Eye! Shelley is explicitly concerned here with breaking cycles of violence and revenge, yet he is unwilling to relinquish the outrage that he continually defers.
In a journal-letter written at about this same time, Keats develops a layered analogy that again involves anger with poetry in a way that reveals his distance from the concerns of earlier decades. He is now only a fit companion for devils, and ought to be shunned and dreaded by human beings. The Works of Lord Byron: Poetry, ed. Furthermore, the blind anger of Prometheus has produced only words, rather than irrevocable deeds. Facsimile with an introduction by Jonathan Wordsworth. A good deal of critical ink has been devoted to the strange intersection of satire and masque found in The Mask of Anarchy.