Alcohol-induced immunosuppression, however, does not appear to be receptor-mediated. In addition, excessive use of legal addictive psychoactive substances, including alcohol and cigarettes containing nicotine, correlates with major health problems, including infectious diseases. Leisure activities of workers in the developing industry: a field study report of a textile factory in Kuasang, Taiwan. The effects of opiates and marijuana, using animal models as well as in vitro studies with immune cells from experimental animals and humans, have shown that immunomodulation induced by these drugs is mainly receptor-mediated, either directly by interaction with specific receptors on immune cells or indirectly by reaction with similar receptors on cells of the nervous system. Numerous studies have now shown that various drugs of abuse affect naive T helper cell divergence into subtypes known to produce distinct cytokines necessary for humoral vs. Furthermore, there was a disconnect between gastrointestinal mobility and transmigration of the Salmonella through the gastric tract in the morphine-pellet-implanted mice vs.
Role of Beta-Endorphin in the Modulation of Immune Responses: Perspectives in Autoimmune Diseases; P. Clinical and experimental animal studies, both in vivo and in vitro, indicate that the abuse of such drugs by individuals is associated with enhanced susceptibility to infectious diseases. In: Herman Friedman, John Madden, and Thomas Klein Eds. The increased lethality by sublethal challenge with small numbers of bacteria was related to decreased immune function. Cellular mechanisms involved in the modulation of the immune system by drugs of abuse.
Chronic exposure to morphine, not ethanol, attenuates the expression of interleukin-1 ß converting enzyme in rat spleen. As evident in , it is now recognized that drugs of abuse may affect many important components of the complex immune system, either enhancing or occasionally suppressing the function of distinct immune response cells and the factors they produce. Cigarette smoke is composed of two components, namely the vapour and the particulate phase. Both cocaine, an illegal drug, and nicotine, a widely used legal addictive component of cigarettes, are markedly immunomodulatory and increase susceptibility to infection. The association between opiates and cytokines in disease. Chronic exposure to morphine attenuates the expression of interleukin-1? Crosstalk between Chemokine and Opioid Receptors Results in Down-modulation of Cell Migration; I. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 induce the expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the rat brain.
In particular, many studies have documented that some of the drugs of abuse discussed in this review influence the lymphocytes as well as the macrophages and dendritic cells which produce a variety of factors necessary for a functional immune response. They are known to be essential for innate immunity. The major aim of this series of conferences has been to clarify the consequences of immunomodulation induced by drugs of abuse in regards to susceptibility and pathogenesis of infectious diseases, both in man and in various animal model systems. Harrison, Lin-Jun Ge, and Sulie L. Peptides, 15 8 : 1505-1511. Patel, Milan Fiala, and Sulie L.
Patel, Gao-de Wu, Milan Fiala, and Sulie L. Anday, WenXin Li and Sulie L. Klodesky, Carla M, Yuhui Jiang, Horace H. Role of Mu-Opioid Receptor in Immune Function; S. Dilemma of the working girl in industry in Taiwan.
Klein, and John Madden Eds. Neurotropic Factor Regulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication in Human Blood Derived Macrophages Through Modulation of Coreceptor Expression; S. The Words and Thought, 13 5 : 327-337. Tribune of Opinions in China, 3 5 : 37-41. While its small molecular nature allows nicotine to cross directly through cell membranes, the primary biological effects are receptor-mediated. Morphine enhances permeability across vascular endothelial cell barriers. Serious concerns have been raised about the consequences of using such drugs, especially in relation to their effects on normal physiological responses, including immune mechanisms.
Abstract The use of drugs of abuse, both recreationally and medicinally, may be related to serious public health concerns. While opiates are known to modulate host immune responses directly, their effects on the physiological function of nonspecific host mechanisms and altered immune responses play an important role in increased susceptibility to infection. The immune system is a complex network of cells and cytokines with the primary function of preventing infection. Beltran, Jose, Xin Mao and Sulie L. Chronic exposure to morphine modulates interleukin-1ß-mediated actions. Th1-cell-mediated immune responses are crucial for resistance to and recovery from Legionella infection, whereas Th2 responses, important for humoral immunity, are non-protective for resistance against intracellular bacteria or even viruses.
Various studies during the last decades have shown that cannabinoids have marked effects on resistance to infectious diseases, both intracellular opportunistic bacteria and a wide variety of viruses ; ; ; ; ; ; , ; ,. In general, cocaine markedly decreases immune parameters or, at least, has variable effects. Kambadur, Ravi, Marc Lewis, Sulie L. Interleukin-1 activates c- fos proto-oncogene in rat brain. For example, exposure of animals to cigarette smoke in inhalation chambers results in increased susceptibility to infections by various bacteria and viruses. In: Herman Friedman, John Madden, and Thomas Klein Eds.
In: Herman Friedman, John Madden, and Thomas Klein Eds. Direct effects on immune cells involve ligation of specific receptors that affect immune responses in both animals and humans so as to alter susceptibility to infection. Attenuation of interleukin-1 ß -induced expression of c-fos in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Alteration of Early T Cell Development by Opioid and Superantigen Stimulation; L. The involvement of specific receptors has been studied in detail for many years, first with opiates and more recently with cannabinoids and nicotine. It is well known that recreational drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and marijuana, as well as other drugs, including the legal drugs alcohol and nicotine, are used by large numbers of individuals. Neurotropic Factor Regulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication in Human Blood Derived Macrophages Through Modulation of Coreceptor Expression; S.
Theoretical methods underlying the effect of social tolerance on attitude-behavior consistency. Several opiate receptors have been identified on cells of the nervous system of animals and humans, with mu, kappa k and gamma g subtypes predominating ; ; ; ; ; ; ;. Quercia, Suzanne and Sulie L. Seventh Annual Symposium on Neuroimmune Circuits and Infectious Diseases. The nature and mechanisms of immunomodulation induced by such drugs of abuse are described in this review.