Growing from 29 to 48 participating countries, there are various explanations — including globalization, intergovernmentalism, and Europeanization - for the policy process. From the Jay Treaty of 1794 to the Iran-U. The existing rules leave a certain margin for subsidies by developing countries, and the Agreement on Agriculture also provides some policy space to support the agricultural sector through, inter alia, its de minimis provisions. In a study published in 2004, the World Bank collected data on income distribution for sixteen countries for the 1990s and shows that inequality only decreased in Brazil and Honduras World Bank, 2004. Perceived best practices legitimate some policies and delegitimize others. What are the consequences of this proliferation of overlapping and parallel institutional commitments among countries in the region? The trade surplus of the region—and particularly of Brazil— will thus depend on continuous growth in both price and quantities of a small number of exported goods. The agreement was enthusiastically supported by all governments in the region, but has later followed different paths in each of the countries.
The duty to exhaust local remedies is very well established and, outside of investment treaty arbitration, no regime that allows individual claims discards it. Investment treaties and the applicable rules of arbitration generally provide for presiding arbitrators to be appointed by a designated authority, in the absence of agreement between the investor and state or between the party-appointed arbitrators. Consent is therefore crucial to the exercise of power, not in the sense that there needs to be active consent before power can be exercised the United States can and does act unilaterally and coercively , but rather that the increasing difficulty in the exercise of agential power is linked, I suggest, to the erosion of the legitimacy of U. Investment promotion agencies might also play a more important role in the area of policy advocacy related to promoting a stronger national innovation system. On both the regional hemispheric and multilateral fronts, Latin American countries have adopted increasingly active—though not always unified—positions.
Structure School to Absorption Quality Quality Loans 4. This article explores the dynamics of regional economic integration in the Americas. Bilateral agreements with the United States have further tightened the space with respect to a number of important policy instruments. Ukraine Jurisdiction April 29, 2004 , 16 4 World Trade and Arb Mat 75 cited as Tokios , para 21, 38, and 80. In El Salvador, a traditional oligarchic coalition between the army and agriculture landowners, while still dominant, was slowly eroded. Yet, the reason has not been the existence of popular movements with informal political influence like in Costa Rica, but the combination of careful governments and divisions within the economic elite. Before doing so, the following section offers a brief account of the evolution of U.
The ways in which this relationship has been organized has varied. The Chinese threat is particularly acute for those countries whose export profiles depend on a narrow range of labor-intensive manufactures. The first is the nature of the U. It allowed for the incorporation of other operations textile production, cutting, washing, etc. It starts with an explanation of the main characteristics of the agreement.
For comments, I thank Vinod Aggarwal, Raj Bhala, Jane Bradley, Bill Davey, Rob Howse, Miles Kahler, Simon Lester, Rod Ludema, Ed Mansfield, Lisa Martin, Petros C. It is also more vulnerable than most policy areas to shifting patterns of congressional and public opinion, as will be discussed shortly. . Following a long history of cross-regional forms of interaction with the global economy Gereffi and Wyman, 1990 , Latin American and Asian 4 S Á N C H E Z- A N C O C H E A A N D S H A D L E N countries have responded differently to the new global environment. Rustemeye eds Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 1.
Monitor de la Manufactura Mexicana 2006 Monitor de la Manufactura Mexicana, vol. We consider, for example, the capacities of the U. Interviews, members of Congress, representatives of business associations, and representatives of labor unions. As discussed, both nations have increasingly supported an export orientation, although as a result of different—even diametrically opposed—development strategies. This lopsided arrangement reflects the evolution of a treaty system in which the negotiating agenda was always driven by the dominant capital-exporters in Western Europe and North America Muchlinski, 2000: 1049. Second, for a number of Latin American countries, trade taxes traditionally generated a significant share of tax revenue, which declined considerably as tariffs were reduced, shifting the tax effort to other taxes and contributions that are more difficult to enforce. House of Representatives, 2001 , Robert B.
Debt crises generated prolonged periods of stagnation and economic restructuring, and the enthusiastic embrace of the Washington Consensus delivered little results in terms of economic expansion, reduction of inequality and creation of new comparative advantages. By giving a prospective consent in an investment treaty, the state exposes itself in principle to claims by any foreign firm with economic interests subject to regulation by the state. As a result, and as reflected in figure 3. By implication, individualization expands the opportunities for arbitrators to adopt a broad approach to their jurisdiction and to the standards that regulate states Sands, 2005: 130—138. Trade liberalization and targeted export incentives contributed to strong rates of export growth see table 1. The lack of strong trade unions with the strategic capabilities and political strength to participate in policy debates also worked at the government advantage.
This article examines the effect of overlapping institutions in trade policy, where the World Trade Organization, preferential trade agreements, and other economic negotiation venues give states many options for negotiating rules and settling disputes. In the context of rapidly changing technologies, the privatization of state-owned enterprises, which occurred on a massive scale throughout developing and transition economies in the 1980s and 1990s, has facilitated the entry of foreign firms into utilities, energy, telecom, and other sectors that historically had been reserved for local and at times public owners. The objective of this program was the conversion of these economies into export platforms of labor intensive manufactures to the United States, thus helping U. Is the exporting of raw materials the new Latin America Model Dussel Peters and Katz, 2006? Paths of Industrialization in Latin America and East Asia. Free Trade Agreement, the Singapore-U.
Binding International Commitments The results of the Uruguay Round reflect a fundamental paradigm shift. Each of the bilateral agreements noted above has departed only insubstantially, if at all, from the schedule of demands that U. Index Firm Level InfraPublic Access Technol. Li 2003 The China Miracle. The primary upshot has been growing calls among such groups for much more stringent application of U.
We use a modified version of Dunning 1993. Contrary to what many would believe, imports in optical and photographic instruments and other manufacturing goods were even more dynamic than imports in mineral fuels during the period 1995—2005. Explanations for the Emergence of the System Once imperial legal regimes were dismantled in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, developing states have opposed rigorous international standards of investor protection asserted by capital-exporting states. Gallagher 2006 The Missing Links between Foreign Investment and Develoment. The resultant distortions permitted a number of Caribbean Basin countries to enjoy a major success with regards to their apparel exports to the U.