Modern studies have further shown that details given in Marco Polo's book, such as the currencies used, salt productions and revenues, are accurate and unique. His accounts are therefore unlikely to have been obtained second hand. Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire. Early life and Asian travel Mosaic of Marco Polo displayed in the Palazzo Doria-Tursi, in , Italy In 1168, his great-uncle, Marco Polo, borrowed money and commanded a ship in Constantinople. Haw sees this as a reasonable claim if Marco was a , who numbered some fourteen thousand at the time.
In 1271, during the rule of , Marco Polo at seventeen years of age , his father, and his uncle set off for Asia on the series of adventures that Marco later documented in his book. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy , married, and had three children. The Travels of Marco Polo, p. It has however been pointed out that Polo's accounts of China are more accurate and detailed than other travelers' accounts of the periods. There is dispute as to whether the Polo family is of Venetian origin, as Venetian historical sources considered them to be of origin. This book inspired and many other travellers.
Haw explains how the earliest of Polo's accounts provide contradicting information about his role in Yangzhou, with some stating he was just a simple resident, others stating he was a governor, and claiming he was simply holding that office as a temporary substitute for someone else, yet all the manuscripts concur that he worked as an esteemed emissary for the khan. Other lesser-known European explorers had already travelled to China, such as , but Polo's book meant that his journey was the first to be widely known. The party sailed to the port of , travelled north to , and sailed west to the port of under and to of. Marco Polo and his Description of the World. The two-year voyage was a perilous one—of the six hundred people not including the crew in the convoy only eighteen had survived including all three Polos. Haeger argued the Marco Polo might not have visited Southern China due to the lack of details in his description of southern Chinese cities compared to northern ones, while also raised the possibility that Marco Polo might not have been to China at all, and wondered if he might have based his accounts on Persian sources due to his use of Persian expressions. Archaeologists have also pointed out that Polo may have mixed up the details from the two by in 1274 and 1281.
Kublai Khan requested that an envoy bring him back. Commemoration Italian banknote, issued in 1982, portraying Marco Polo. He received a good education, learning mercantile subjects including foreign currency, appraising, and the handling of cargo ships; he learned little or no. Marco Polo's birthplace is generally considered to be , but some also claimed and the island of as his birth place. The sinologist thought that Polo might have served as an officer of the government salt monopoly in Yangzhou, which was a position of some significance that could explain the exaggeration. While Polo describes and the burning of coal, he fails to mention the , , , , or.
They had travelled almost 15,000 miles 24,000 km. A page from Il Milione, from a manuscript believed to date between 1298—1299. Yet the Italian historiography considers that he was born in Venice and calls for the alleged Marco's paternal grandfather — Andrea Polo of San Felice whose, as we said, first mention is by G. They sailed to , and then rode on camels to the Persian port of. The airport in is named.
In 1260, Niccolò and Maffeo, while residing in Constantinople, then the capital of the , foresaw a political change; they liquidated their assets into jewels and moved away. He ordered 220 be paid to Giovanni Giustiniani for his work as a notary and his prayers. Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. Bulletin of Sung and Yüan Studies. Captured Venetian citizens were blinded, while many of those who managed to escape perished aboard overloaded refugee ships fleeing to other Venetian colonies in the Aegean Sea.
Marco learned the mercantile trade from his father and his uncle, , who travelled through Asia and met. Haw also argued that footbinding was not common even among Chinese during Polo's time and almost unknown among the Mongols. At this time, Venice was at war with the. Unfortunately, the party was soon attacked by , who used the cover of a sandstorm to ambush them. Entrusted with the task of preparing a new Italian edition of Marco Polo, Benedetto discovered many unknown manuscripts.
Other accounts have also been verified; for example, when visiting in , China, Marco Polo noted that a large number of had been built there. If this is not the case, a more likely date for their arrival is 1275 or 1274, according to the research of Japanese scholar Matsuo Otagi. In 1300, he married Donata Badoèr, the daughter of Vitale Badoèr, a merchant. His failure to note the presence of the Great Wall of China was first raised in the middle of seventeenth century, and in the middle of eighteenth century, it was suggested that he might have never reached China. He also said that city wall of Khanbaliq had twelve gates when it had only eleven.